Publications on Reasoning and Rationality:

Key Papers:

Stanovich, K. E.  (2016).  The Comprehensive Assessment of Rational Thinking.  Educational Psychologist, 51, 23-34. Stanovich_EdPsy_2016.pdf

Stanovich, K. E. (2015, Winter).  Rational and Irrational Thought: The Thinking that IQ Tests Miss. Scientific American Mind Special Collector’s Edition, 23(4), 12-17. Stanovich_Sci_American_2015.pdf

Toplak, M. E., West, R. F., & Stanovich, K. E. (2014). Assessing miserly processing: An expansion of the Cognitive Reflection Test.  Thinking & Reasoning, 20, 147-168. Toplak_West_Stanovich_14.pdf

Stanovich, K. E., West, R. F., & Toplak, M. E. (2013).  Myside bias, rational thinking, and intelligence. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 22, 259-264. Stanovich_CDPS_2013.pdf

Evans, J. St. B. T. & Stanovich, K. E. (2013). Dual-process theories of higher cognition: Advancing the debate. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 8, 223-241, 263-271. Evans_Stanovich_PoPS13.pdf Evans_Stanovich_Reply.pdf

Stanovich, K. E. (2013).  Why humans are (sometimes) less rational than other animals:  Cognitive complexity and the axioms of rational choice. Thinking & Reasoning, 19, 1-26. Stanovich_TAR_2013.pdf

Stanovich, K. E. (2012).  On the distinction between rationality and intelligence: Implications for understanding individual differences in reasoning.  In K. Holyoak & R. Morrison (Eds.) (pp. 343-365), The Oxford handbook of thinking and reasoning.  New York: Oxford University Press. Stanovich_Oxford_Handbook.pdf

West, R. F., Meserve, R. J., & Stanovich, K. E. (2012). Cognitive sophistication does not attenuate the bias blind spot.  Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 103, 506-513.  West_Stanovich_JPSP2012.pdf

Toplak, M. E., West, R. F., & Stanovich, K. E. (2011). The Cognitive Reflection Test as a predictor of performance on heuristics and biases tasks.  Memory & Cognition, 39, 1275-1289. MC_2011.pdf

Stanovich, K. E., West, R. F., & Toplak, M. E. (2011).  Intelligence and rationality.  In R. J. Sternberg & S. B. Kaufman (Eds.), Cambridge Handbook of Intelligence (pp. 784-826).  New York: Cambridge University Press. Stanovich_Handbook.pdf

Stanovich, K. E., West, R. F., & Toplak, M. E. (2011). The complexity of developmental predictions from dual process models.  Developmental Review, 31, 103-118. Stanovich_West_Toplak_DR_2011.pdf

Stanovich, K. E. (2009, Nov/Dec).  The thinking that IQ tests miss. Scientific American Mind, 20(6), 34-39.  Stanovich_IQ-Tests-Miss_SAM09.pdf

Stanovich, K. E, & West. R. F. (2008). On the relative independence of thinking biases and cognitive ability. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 94, 672-695.  JPSP08.pdf

Stanovich, K. E, & West. R. F. (2008). On the failure of intelligence to predict myside bias and one-sided bias. Thinking & Reasoning, 14, 129 -167. SWTandR08.pdf

Stanovich, K. E., & West, R. F. (2003). Evolutionary versus instrumental goals: How evolutionary psychology misconceives human rationality. In D. Over (Ed.), Evolution and the psychology of thinking: The debate (pp. 171-230). Hove, England: Psychology Press. Stanovich.Over.Chapter.pdf

Stanovich, K. E., & West, R. F. (2000). Individual differences in reasoning: Implications for the rationality debate? Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 23, 645-665. bbs2000.pdf

Stanovich, K. E., & West, R. F. (2000). Advancing the rationality debate. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 23, 701-726. bbs2000.pdf

Stanovich, K. E., & West, R. F. (1999). Discrepancies between normative and descriptive models of decision making and the understanding/acceptance principle. Cognitive Psychology, 38, 349-385. cogpsy99.pdf

Stanovich, K. E., & West, R. F. (1998). Individual differences in rational thought. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 127, 161-188. Stanovich-Ind-Dif-JEPG98.pdf

Stanovich, K. E., & West, R. F. (1997). Reasoning independently of prior belief and individual differences in actively open-minded thinking. Journal of Educational Psychology, 89, 342-357. SW_1997.pdf

Additional Papers:

Toplak, M. E., West, R. F., & Stanovich, K. E. (2016).  Real-world correlates of performance on heuristics and biases tasks in a community sample.  Journal of Behavioral Decision Making, in press, published online. ToplakWestStano_RealWorld_HB_JBDM_online_2016.pdf

Stanovich, K. E., West, R. F., & Toplak, M. E. (2017).  Toward a Rationality Quotient (RQ): The Comprehensive Assessment of Rational Thinking (CART).  In N. Galbraith, D. Over & E. Lucas (Eds.), The Practical Mind: The Use of Thinking in Everyday Life (pp. 202-221).  Hove, England: Psychology Press.

Stanovich, K. E.  (2015). Meta-Rationality in cognitive science.  Journal of Marketing Behavior, 1, 147-156. Stanovich_JMP_15.pdf

Toplak, M. E., West, R. F., & Stanovich, K. E. (2014).  Rational thinking and cognitive sophistication: Development, cognitive abilities, and thinking dispositions.  Developmental Psychology, 50, 1037-1048. Toplak_West_Stanovich_DP14.pdf

Stanovich, K. E.  (2015). Meta-Rationality in cognitive science.  Journal of Marketing Behavior, 1, 147-156. Stanovich_JMP_15.pdf

Stanovich, K. E., & West, R. F.  (2014). What intelligence tests miss.  The Psychologist, 27(2), 80-83. Stanovich_ThePsychologist.pdf

Stanovich, K. E.  (2014). Assessing cognitive abilities: Intelligence and more.  Journal of Intelligence, 2, 8-11. Stanovich_JOI.pdf

Stanovich, K. E. (2012).  Environments for fast and slow thinking (review of Kahneman, 2012).  Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 16(4), 198-199.  Stanovich_TICS_2012.pdf

Stanovich, K. E., West, R. F., & Toplak, M. E. (2011).  Individual differences as essential components of heuristics and biases research. In K. Manktelow, D. Over, & S. Elqayam (Eds.), The science of reason: A festschrift for Jonathan St. B. T. Evans (pp. 335-396).  New York: Psychology Press. Stanovich_West_Toplak.pdf

Stanovich, K. E. & Toplak, M. E. (2012). Defining features versus incidental correlates of Type 1 and Type 2 processing.  Mind & Society, 11, 3-13. Stanovich_Toplak_MS12.pdf

Stanovich, K. E., & West, R. F.  (2014). The Assessment of Rational Thinking:  IQ ≠ RQ.  Teaching of Psychology, 41, 265-271. Stano_West_TOC_2014.pdf

Stanovich, K. E., West, R. F., & Toplak, M. E. (2014).  Rationality, intelligence, and the defining features of Type 1 and Type 2 processing.  In J. Sherman, B. Gawronski, Y. Trope (Eds.), Dual process theories of the social mind (pp. 80-91).  New York: Guilford Press. Stanovich_West_Toplak_2014.pdf

Toplak, M. E., West, R. F., & Stanovich, K. E. (2013).  Assessing the development of rationality.  In H. Markovits (Eds.), Understanding the development of reasoning and decision-making (pp. 7-35).  New York: Psychology Press. Toplak_West_Stanovich.pdf

Stanovich, K. E., West, R. F., & Toplak, M. E. (2012).  Judgment and decision making in adolescence: Separating intelligence from rationality.  In V. Reyna, S. Chapman, M. Dougherty, & J. Confrey (Eds.), The adolescent brain: Learning, reasoning, and decision making (pp. 337-378).  Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. Stanovich_APA_2012.pdf

Toplak, M. E., West, R. F., & Stanovich, K. E. (2013). Do performance-based measures and ratings of executive function assess the same construct?  Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 54, 131-143. ToplakWestStanovich_2013.pdf

Stanovich, K. E. (2011).  Normative models in psychology are here to stay.  Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 34, 268-269.

Stanovich, K. E. (2012).  Cumulative progress in understanding our multiple minds.  American Journal of Psychology, 125, 116-121. AJP_125_reviews.pdf

Stanovich, K. E. (2009). Distinguishing the reflective, algorithmic, and autonomous minds: Is it time for a tri-process theory? In J. Evans & K. Frankish (Eds.), In two minds: Dual processes and beyond (pp. 55-88). Oxford: Oxford University Press. Stanovich_Two_Minds.pdf

Stanovich, K. E. (2009).  Rationality versus intelligence. Project Syndicatelink

Toplak, M. E., Sorge, G. B., Benoit, A., West, R. F., & Stanovich, K. E. (2010). Decision-making and cognitive abilities: A review of associations between Iowa Gambling Task performance, executive functions, and intelligence.  Clinical Psychology Review, 30, 562-581. Toplak_Stanovich_CPR_2010.pdf

Stanovich, K. E., & Stanovich, P. J. (2010).  A framework for critical thinking, rational thinking, and intelligence. In D. Preiss & R. J. Sternberg (Eds.), Innovations in educational psychology: Perspectives on learning, teaching and human development (pp. 195-237).  New York: Springer.  Stanovich_Stanovich_2010.pdf

West, R. F., Toplak, M. E., & Stanovich, K. E. (2008). Heuristics and biases as measures of critical thinking: Associations with cognitive ability and thinking dispositions. Journal of Educational Psychology, 100, 930-941.  West_JEP_2008.pdf

Stanovich, K. E., Toplak, M. E., & West, R. F. (2008). The development of rational thought: A taxonomy of heuristics and biases. Advances in child development and behaviour, 36, 251-285.  Stanovich_Advances_2008.pdf

Stanovich, K. E. (2008). Higher-order preferences and the Master Rationality Motive. Thinking & Reasoning, 14, 111-127. TandR08.pdf

Stanovich, K. E., & West, R. F. (2007). Natural myside bias is independent of cognitive ability. Thinking & Reasoning, 13, 225-247. TandR07.pdf

Toplak, M., Liu, E., Macpherson, R., Toneatto, T., & Stanovich, K. E. (2007). The reasoning skills and thinking dispositions of problem gamblers: A dual-process taxonomy. Journal of Behavioral Decision Making, 20, 103-124. JBDM07.pdf

Stanovich, K. E. (2008). Individual differences in reasoning and the algorithmic/intentional level
distinction in cognitive science. In L. Rips & J. Adler (Eds.),
Reasoning: Studies of human inference
and its foundations
(pp. 414-436). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Macpherson, R., & Stanovich, K. E. (2007). Cognitive ability, thinking dispositions, and instructional set as predictors of critical thinking. Learning and Individual Differences, 17, 115-127. LAID07.pdf

Stanovich, K. E. (2007). The psychology of decision making in a unified behavioral science. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 30, 41-42.

Stanovich, K. E.  (2007, May).  Rationality, evolution, and the meme concept.  Paper presented to the conference, Imitation, Memory, and Cultural Changes: Probing the Meme Hypothesis, Victoria College, University of Toronto.  Talk_Link


Stanovich, K. E. (2006). Editorial: Rationality and the adolescent mind. Psychological Science in the Public Interest, 7, i-ii. PSPI06.pdf

Stanovich, K. E. (2006). Memetics and money. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 29, 194-195. MemesBBS06.pdf

Stanovich, K. E. (2006). Fluid intelligence as cognitive decoupling. Behavioral and Brain Sciences,
29
, 139-140. FluidBBS06.pdf

Stanovich, K. E. (2005). On the coexistence of cognitivism and intertemporal bargaining. Behavioral
and Brain Sciences, 28
, 661-662. WillBBS05.pdf

Sá, W., Kelley, C., Ho, C., & Stanovich, K. E. (2005). Thinking about personal theories: individual differences in the coordination of theory and evidence. Personality and Individual Differences, 38, 1149-1161. sa paid05.pdf

Stanovich, K. E. (2004). Balance in psychological research: The dual process perspective. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 27, 357-358. SocialBBS04.pdf

Stanovich, K. E. (2004). Metarepresentation and the great cognitive divide: A commentary on Henriques' "Psychology Defined." Journal of Clinical Psychology, 60, 1263-1266. jclnpsy04.pdf

Stanovich, K. E. (2004). Development and decisions. In J. Jacobs & P. Klaczynski (Eds.), The development of judgment and decision-making in children and adolescents . Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.

Stanovich, K. E., & West, R. F. (2003). The rationality debate as a progressive research program. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 26, 531-534. BBS reply 03.pdf

West, R. F., & Stanovich, K. E. (2003). Is probability matching smart? Associations between probabilistic choices and cognitive ability. Memory & Cognition, 31, 243-251. MemCog03.pdf

Stanovich, K. E. (2003). The fundamental computational biases of human cognition: Heuristics that (sometimes) impair decision making and problem solving. In J. E. Davidson & R. J. Sternberg (Eds.), The psychology of problem solving (pp. 291-342). New York: Cambridge University Press. Available from Amazon.com and Cambridge University Press. Stanovich.Sternberg2003.pdf

Stanovich, K. E., Sá, W. C., & West, R. F. (2003). Individual differences in thinking, reasoning, and decision making. In J. P. Leighton & R. J. Sternberg (Eds.), The nature of reasoning (pp. 375-409). New York: Cambridge University Press. Available from Amazon.com and Cambridge University Press.

Stanovich, K. E., Grunewald, M., & West, R. F. (2003). Cost-benefit reasoning in students with multiple secondary school suspensions. Personality and Individual Differences, 35, 1061-1072. PersIndif03.pdf

Toplak, M. E., & Stanovich, K. E. (2003). Associations between myside bias on an informal reasoning task and amount of post-secondary education. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 17, 851-860. appcogpsy03.pdf

Kokis, J, Macpherson, R., Toplak, M. E., West, R. F., & Stanovich, K. E. (2002). Heuristic and analytic processing: Age trends and associations with cognitive ability and cognitive styles. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 83, 26-52. RNjecp02.pdf

Stanovich, K.E., & West, R.F. (2002). Individual differences in reasoning: Implications for the rationality debate? In T. Gilovich, D. W. Griffin, D. Kahneman (Eds.), Heuristics and biases: The psychology of intuitive judgment (pp. 421-440 ). New York: Cambridge University Press. Available from Amazon.com and Cambridge University Press.

Stanovich, K. E. (2002). Rationality, intelligence, and levels of analysis in cognitive science: Is dysrationalia possible? In R. J. Sternberg (Ed.), Why smart people can be so stupid (pp. 124-158). New Haven, CT: Yale University Press. Available from Amazon.com and Yale University Press. Stanovich.Sternberg2002.pdf

Toplak, M. E., & Stanovich, K. E. (2002). The domain specificity and generality of disjunctive reasoning: Searching for a generalizable critical thinking skill. Journal of Educational Psychology, 94, 197-209. jedp02.pdf

Sá, W. C., & Stanovich, K. E. (2001). The domain specificity and generality of mental contamination: Accuracy and projection in judgments of mental content. British Journal of Psychology, 92, 281-302. bjp01.pdf

Stanovich, K. E. (2001). The rationality of educating for wisdom. Educational Psychologist, 36, 247-251. edpsy01.pdf

Sá, W. C., West, R. F., & Stanovich, K. E. (1999). The domain specificity and generality of belief bias: Searching for a generalizable critical thinking skill. Journal of Educational Psychology, 91, 497-510. jedp99.pdf

Stanovich, K. E. & West, R. F. (1999). Individual differences in reasoning and the heuristics and biases debate. In P. Ackerman, P. Kyllonen, & R. Roberts (Eds.), Learning and individual differences: Process, trait, and content determinants (pp. 389-407). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. Stanovich_APA_1999.pdf

Stanovich, K. E., & West, R. F. (1998). Individual differences in framing and conjunction effects. Thinking and Reasoning, 4, 289-317. threas98.pdf

Stanovich, K. E., & West, R. F. (1998). Cognitive ability and variation in selection task performance. Thinking and Reasoning, 4, 193-230. threas98a.pdf

Stanovich, K. E., & West, R. F. (1998). Who uses base rates and P(D/~H)? An analysis of individual differences. Memory & Cognition, 26, 161-179. MemCog98.pdf

Stanovich, K. E., & West, R. F. (1997). Reasoning independently of prior belief and individual differences in actively open-minded thinking. Journal of Educational Psychology, 89, 342-357. Stanovich_JEP_1997.pdf

West, R. F., & Stanovich, K. E. (1997). The domain specificity and generality of overconfidence: Individual differences in performance estimation bias. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 4, 387-392. PBR97.pdf

Stanovich, K. E. (1996). Decentered thought and consequentialist decision making. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 19, 323-324.

Stanovich, K. E. (1994). Reconceptualizing intelligence: Dysrationalia as an intuition pump. Educational Researcher, 23(4), 11-22. [Reply: 23 (7), p. 33]

Stanovich, K. E. (1993). Dysrationalia: A new specific learning disability. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 26, 501-515.


Stanovich, K.E.  (1989). Implicit philosophies of mind: The dualism scale and its relationships with religiosity and belief in extrasensory perception. Journal of Psychology, 123, 5-23. Stanovich_JOP_1989.pdf